Analysis to Next Generation Sequencing Technology

With the development of science, traditional Sanger sequencing has failed to meet new requirements of low cost, high throughput and fast in speed.

Recent years, with the discovery and promotion of second-generation sequencing technology, the gene sequencing speed has increased greatly while achieving a substantial decline in costs, making large-scale application of genome sequencing possible. Now, the cost of personal whole genome sequencing is about 5,000$, and is expected to decreased to less than $ 1,000 in the next few years.

The rapid development of sequencing technology will promote the massive accumulation of DNA sequencing data, accompanied by the accumulation of the corresponding individual diseases, signs and other data at the same time. When we accumulate enough data, how to understand these data will be critical. On the micro level, generations of molecular biologists’ studying the effects of apparent biological traits genes exert on utilizing technologies like gene knockout have made breakthroughs in many crucial aspects. On the macro level, statistics and other data analysis techniques are introduced to study the relationship between gene sequences and biological phenotype. The accumulation of basic scientific research gradually brings breakthroughs in clinical applications.

There are now two types of clinical applications mainly, one aims at disease screening of ordinary people. It infers people’s future risks of getting cancer by measuring the known genes associated with a disease loci. The other aims at the diagnosis cancer and other deadly diseases. It finds in a series of drugs or plans the most effective one for certain patients by testing the loci of certain genes.

Data from BBC research shows that total global gene sequencing market increased from $ 7.941million in 2007 to $ 4.5 billion in 2013, and will reach $ 11.7 billion in the year of 2018 with the CAGR up to 21.2%.

Currently, the market of de novo sequence platform is mainly taken by several major manufacturers, including the Illumina, Ion Torrent / Life Technologies (was the acquisition of Thermo Fisher in 2014), 454 Life Sciences / Roche, etc.

Under such a circumstance, the next generation sequencing technology (second-generation sequencing) appears. As an emerging industry, the next-generation sequencing technology can be applied in clinical testing like antibody discovery, health industry, industrial and agricultural use of gene-oriented study as well as scientific research and development.

To stimulate the next generation sequencing market, we need to start by investing more small and medium size industry focusing on this field.

Anti-Ageing – Dermal Fillers Help to Keep The Signs of Ageing to a Minimum

Dermal fillers are very effective in both men and women, filling depressions on the face, hands and body. Injectable fillers are the perfect way to enhance your facial features, because they can help to fill hollows, plump up thin lips, soften folds and wrinkles on the face and improve scars and other facial defects.

Fillers can help to fill out smokers lines around the lips, the nasolabial lines that run from the nose to the corners of the mouth, smile lines, crows feet and forehead furrows. Fillers are also ideal to add volume to sunken cheeks and weak chins, as well as reshaping the tip of the nose, and filling out deeper acne scars.

The ageing process begins when we are about 25 and over the next decade:

Skin cell turnover slows down and dead cells remain on the skin creating a dull appearance
Early wrinkles can begin to appear around the eyes
The lines from the nose to mouth become more prominent
The jaw line begins to soften

From age 35 to 45

Lines and wrinkles will deepen, and frown lines can give your face an angry look
Your skin type may change, from oily to dry or vice versa
Pigmentation changes on your skin

From age 45 onwards

In menopause, oestrogen levels decrease, causing collagen to deplete
Volume loss causes sunken cheeks
The skin can become dry and dehydrated
Pigmentation will become more visible
The face begins to drop and sag
The jaw area loses definition

Getting wrinkles and creases on the face is part of the ageing process, and they begin to appear as the collagen and elastin fibres break down, but they can also result from excessive frowning, smiling or squinting.

Dynamic lines

Dynamic are when lines, wrinkles and other signs of ageing occur on the face when it’s in motion. They’re also called expression lines; laughter lines, frown lines and bunny lines, which are harmless at a younger age but will often contribute to where the deeper set wrinkles and folds will remain in later life.

Static lines

Static lines are noticeable wrinkles, lines, sagging and folds which are present on the resting face; sagging jaw line, nasal folds, sunken cheeks and horizontal forehead lines. These lines, if left untreated, will stay on the face and will progressively worsen.

Dermal Fillers are a temporary solution, as the hyaluronic acid in the fillers is naturally degradable, and is naturally broken down and eventually absorbed by the body. Fillers are effective at restoring hydration to the skin, smoothing lines and wrinkles and can also restore and enhance the facial shape. The fillers last around 9 to 12 months, although this may vary from person to person, depending on their lifestyle and which part of the face gets injected.

If you need help choosing a cosmetic procedure, we provide an extensive range of cosmetic procedures for the face and body: Botox, Vaser Lipo, Lip Augmentation, Dermal Fillers and many more treatments, to help create a younger, slimmer, more youthful looking you!

How to Use the I Ching – Basic Three Coin Method

To use the I Ching, all you need is a copy of the I Ching and three coins that have a heads and a tails side. You will also need a scrap of paper and a writing utensil. Start by holding the coins in your hand, and think of a question you would like answered. When you have a clear idea of the question you would like to ask, throw the coins. Take a look at the results. Each head is worth 3 and each tails is worth 2. So add up the value. For example, suppose you throw the coins and the coins fall as two heads and one tail. That means the total would be 8. 3 + 3 + 2 = 8. So for the first line, you would record an 8. Repeat this process five more times, writing the numerical values in a vertical sequence from bottom to top. Once you have these 6 numerical values, you are ready to begin building your hexagram.

To build a hexagram, you’re going to simply write a broken line for each even value, and a solid line for each odd value. Once you have 6 lines, you have made a hexagram. When your hexagram is formed, you must now look it up in your copy of the I Ching. Usually on the very last page of your I Ching there will be a chart that makes looking up the hexagram easy. When you find your hexagram, read the chapter of the I Ching that corresponds to the hexagram.

Take a look at your hexagram. Do you have any sixes or nines? If so you will need to read the text under the line that is either six or nine. Usually this will be written in your I Ching as first line, second line, etc., or in some cases it will be described as first six, second nine, and so on. These are known as the changing lines. The text that is in this section pertains specifically to you and your question. Now you will make a second hexagram.

For the second hexagram you will need to change all of the lines with a six to nine, and all the lines with a nine to a six. Leave the rest of the lines the same. Then look up the resulting hexagram in the same way you did the first time, including the six and nine lines. Finally, after you have done all this, you will then ‘check your work’ using the rtcm (retrospective three coin method). This is a method that I learned about by reading a book by Carol Anthony, who is a leading writer on the subject of the I Ching. To use this method, simply form a theory about what you think the I Ching is trying to tell you. When you have a theory, hold it in your mind and toss the coins. If you get three heads, it means yes. Three tails is no. Two heads is yes, but… and two tails is no, but… keep doing this until you get a clear idea of what the I Ching is telling you. When you ask it if a particular interpretation of the reading is correct, toss the coins, and they are all three heads up, you will know that you have hit on a correct interpretation.